How Do Bees Make Wax? Uncovering the Secrets of the Hive

Educational image featuring bees and beeswax products with the title 'How Do Bees Make Wax?' by Harry Rufus.

Bees are fascinating creatures that amaze us with their highly organized colonies and complex honeycomb structures. However, the process of wax production is what enables the hive to thrive. Understanding how do bees make wax provides insight into the bee world.

This article uncovers the secrets behind wax making in the beehive, explaining how female worker bees produce wax, the function of their special wax glands, and the elaborate process of building perfectly hexagonal comb. It also provides information on the ideal ambient temperature for wax production, the age of bees that secrete wax, and the staggering amount of energy required to produce just one pound of wax.

The composition and varying colours of natural beeswax are explored, as well as its key properties that make it suitable for honeycomb construction. The multitude of uses humans have found for beeswax over history, from candle making to cosmetics, provides an intriguing glimpse into this versatile substance.

Understanding How Do Bees Make Wax

Worker bees between 10 and 20 days old produce beeswax in specialized glands located on the underside of their abdomens.

bee secreting

The wax glands of bees get activated only when the temperature inside the hive is between 33°C and 36°C (91°F and 97°F). The worker bees are responsible for regulating the temperature of the hive by fanning and clustering together to start the process of wax production. If the temperature falls outside of the optimal range, then the wax glands will not secrete.

Once wax production begins, the liquid wax solidifies into thin wax scales upon contact with the air. Female worker bees manage this process carefully, since the ambient temperature affects the rate of solidification. Low temperatures will cause the wax to solidify too quickly before it can be used.

The bees have a very specific temperature requirement which indicates the delicate connection between them and their surroundings. The hive acts as a regulated microclimate that enables the bees to create the wax that is crucial for constructing honeycomb. Knowing about this temperature-sensitive process provides valuable information into the intricate workings of the hive.

How do bees make Beeswax

The process of producing wax starts within the worker honey bee. Their eight wax-producing glands convert the sugars obtained from the ingested honey into liquid beeswax, which then seeps out through small pores on the bees’ abdomens. As the warm wax comes into contact with the cooler hive air, it solidifies into small flakes or scales.

bee festooning
Bee festooning

Other worker bees collect the small white wax scales. They pass the scales from bee to bee, chew them, and mix them with saliva to make them soft and pliable. The right consistency is reached when the wax can be easily moulded and shaped.

Worker bees use softened wax to construct the honeycombs that make up the beehive. They meticulously build the honeycomb cells in a hexagonal shape that maximizes the volume for storing honey and to store pollen while minimizing the amount of wax required. This demonstrates an efficient geometric design.

The completed honeycomb provides essential compartments for storing food, laying eggs, and developing brood. Its durability and robustness enable it to endure continual changes in temperature and weight. The structure of the comb, along with the waterproofing qualities of the wax, aids in regulating the internal environment of the bee colony.

What is Beeswax Made Of?

myricyl palmitate
Myricyl palmitate

Beeswax is a complex natural substance that comprises various compounds. Researchers have discovered over 300 compounds in beeswax to date. The primary compound is an ester named myricyl palmitate, which constitutes more than 70% of beeswax. Esters are formed when acids and alcohols combine.

In addition, beeswax contains hydrocarbons, which are chemical compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Fatty acids, which are present in fats and oils, make up around 12-15% of beeswax. Palmitic acid is the most common fatty acid found in beeswax.

Beeswax also contains small amounts of aromatic acids, aldehydes, ketones, polyesters, and polyethers. These compounds come mainly from the pollen oils and propolis gathered by bees. The precise ingredients in beeswax depend on the flowers and plants that honey bees visit. This, in turn, affects the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients found in their wax.

When first made by bees, beeswax is a light yellow colour. Over time, it darkens to golden or brown because substances like propolis and plant pigments are mixed in.

The Significance of Beeswax Production

beeswax comb
Beeswax comb

Producing beeswax is a highly resource-intensive process for honey bees. It takes about 8 pounds of honey for worker bees to collectively produce a single pound of wax. This requires a great deal of energy, as the bees need to fly over 55,000 miles to gather enough honey for just one pound of wax.

Despite the enormous amount of resources invested in it, the hexagonal honeycomb is an architectural marvel. Its ingenious structure allows for the creation of chamber walls that are incredibly strong while using the least amount of material possible. This is because the hexagon is the most efficient shape for storing the maximum amount of honey while minimising wax usage.

It’s amazing to think that bees, who have no engineering knowledge, are able to create such a complex geometric structure. They build their comb uniformly, guided only by their natural instinct and knowledge of structural engineering. The honeycomb’s simple yet elegant design is a testament to the power of natural selection over millions of years.

How Understanding Beeswax Production Can Benefit You

When we take the time to understand the marvel of beeswax production, we gain insight into sustainability principles that can enrich our lives. The amazing resource efficiency of honeybees can inspire us to reduce waste in our human activities.

Bees are a great example of how to maximise function with minimal materials through ingenious structural design. The hexagonal shape of the honeycomb is an excellent example of form following function. We can apply these biomimicry principles to engineering stronger, lighter structures.

Appreciating the complex orchestration of thousands of bees working in unison fosters a sense of wonder. Despite their tiny size, bees create an architectural masterpiece through their coordinated effort. When we recognise the sophistication hidden within a humble honeycomb, it can change our perspective.

Learning about beeswax can make us more observant of the miracles of nature that surround us every day. It can help us develop a greater curiosity about the world we live in, whether we’re exploring how maple sap is produced, how spider silk is used, or how succulents store water. By gaining new knowledge, we can learn to see familiar things with fresh eyes.

Understanding how beeswax is made can help us appreciate the things that we might otherwise take for granted. Simple products like beeswax candles and cosmetics can take on new meaning when we learn about their hidden origins. This knowledge can inspire us to make more conscious consumer choices that help us avoid waste and exploitation.

Perhaps most importantly, learning about the unique abilities of bees can help us become better stewards of the environment. By caring for the health of pollinators, we can ensure that flowers, food, and forests continue to thrive. Our lives are intricately connected to the natural world, and by following even one thread of that connection, we can gain a better understanding of our place in nature’s web.


natural bee wax
Natural Beeswax Honeycomb

The intricate process of beeswax production is truly remarkable. Specialised wax glands convert honey into pliable secretions that worker bees collect and shape into perfectly hexagonal comb. This system enables honey bees to construct one of nature’s most impressive architectural feats using minimal material for maximum strength and storage capacity. Beeswax is a versatile, waterproof and malleable substance with a wide temperature range, making it ideal for hive construction.

However, despite all the adaptations that enable efficient wax production, the process requires a significant amount of energy and resources from the hive. Understanding the effort required to create even a pound of beeswax gives us a profound sense of the challenges honey bees face.

By highlighting the hidden abilities of these small but mighty pollinators, we gain insight into the complex web of life around us. Bees play a crucial role in sustaining diverse ecosystems through their pollination services, which impact everything from flowers and crops to wildlife. Learning about even a fraction of their abilities instills admiration and a sense of urgency to protect bees and our shared environment.

As we discover some of nature’s microscopic wonders that happen around us every day, familiar things take on a new meaning. Curiosity transforms into connection, and awareness of each thread weaves us into the intricate tapestry of life. Even the humble honeybee has much to teach us if we learn to see the world through a new perspective.

Next on your reading list: How to Use Beeswax on Wood

FAQS about Beeswax

At what age do bees start producing wax?

Beeswax production typically begins when worker bees are between 10 to 20 days old. At this juvenile stage the wax glands on their abdomens become active. Young bees of this age have special physiological adaptations that enable wax secretion. Their abdomens are more pliable, allowing the wax mirrors to expand. Their bodies also contain the greatest amounts of sugars and fatty acids to convert into beeswax. Older bees produce less wax, as their glands and bodies become less flexible. Therefore, wax production is one task allotted to the younger members of the hive workforce.

How many wax scales are needed to produce one kilo of beeswax?

The amount of wax required to produce commercial quantities of beeswax is astonishing. Over one million tiny wax scales are needed to make just one kilogram of pure beeswax. Considering a single bee may only produce 8 scales in a 12 hour period, this demonstrates the massive combined effort of thousands of bees working around the clock to generate the wax used in building honeycombs. Truly appreciating the energy invested in creating each kilo provides deeper insight into the laborious natural process of beeswax production.

What is the significance of the hexagonal shape of honeycomb cells?

The hexagonal structure of honeycomb cells is significant because it allows bees to create the maximum storage capacity with the minimum amount of wax. Hexagons tessellate perfectly, leaving no gaps between cells. This efficient, geometric design provides more storage than square or triangular shapes using the same amount of material. The walls meet at an angle that generates exceptional strength and stability without requiring extra wax. Hexagons also transition smoothly into one another, creating a modular, expandable comb structure. The hexagon is simply the most efficient shape for bees to store large amounts of honey and pollen while economising wax use.


Jonathan Gaze

Content Editor

Hello there! I’m Jonathan Gaze, Content Editor for Harry Rufus.

With my technical problem-solving skills and meticulous attention to detail, I present sustainable living advice clearly and understandably. I’ve developed a knack for filtering out the fluff, presenting you with only the most practical and reliable sustainable living guidelines.

Here’s what you can anticipate from my content:

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I’m committed to making your transition to an eco-conscious lifestyle a breeze, turning challenges into opportunities.

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